According to American Psychiatric Association, mental illness is a common condition which effects atleast 19% per adult population in US. The mental illness can bring about changes in thinking, emotion andor behavior and can result in problems in day to day activities affecting both personal and professional life. This 4.1% case of mental illness turnout to be serious and 8.5% cases because of substance disorder.
Mental illness can target anyone irrespective ofage, gender (male or female), income (poor or rich), social status (celebrity or common man), race/ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation or any cultural identity. Although mental illness can happen at any age, it mostly happens at the age of 24 years. It can be mild to severe which can affect day-to-day activities. In certain cases individuals are hospitalized to improve their mental illness.
Factors contributing to mental illness:
There are a number of contributing factors which causes mental illness, here we brief few factors which can cause mental illness
- Biological Factors for Mental Illness
In brain, the nerves communicate with each other with the help of chemicals called as neurotransmitters. Any irregular communication of nerves between nerve cell circuits or cell signaling pathways, this can result in mental illness. Defects and injury in the nerve cells also contribute to the mental illness.
- Lack of adequate nutrients decreases development of brain and impaired function
- Injuries in the certain part of the brain
- Exposure to toxins such as lead
- Substance abuse is the contributing factor for anxiety, depression, and paranoia, the various forms of mental illness
- Prenatal damage which can be due to lack of oxygen, trauma at the time of birth, etc.
- Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder (PANDA) which is caused by Streptococcus bacteria has been linked with of obsessive-compulsive disorder and other mental illnesses in children.
- Like other disease such as heart and diabetes, mental illness can be caused by hereditary factors, that mean if any of the family members has it, and then the other members of the family can have the condition. The genes interact with each other resulting in stress, abuse and trauma which can result in mental illness.
- Psychological Factors for Mental Illness
The physical and biological development of nerves and brain is important, apart from this, many psychological factors such as physical trauma, emotional trauma and sexual abuse can cause mental illness. Childhood trauma in the form of neglect, discouragement and poor ability has long-term impact.
Personal factor which can induce stress such as death in the family, divorce, dysfunctional family life, loneliness, angry, anxiety and low self-esteem can cause mental illness.
- Environmental Factors for Mental Illness
These are man-made factors which have to be forcefully adapted by the individual. Society has set certain standards for the individuals and has social and cultural expectations which an individual may fail to leave the mark. Substance abuse which can be for recreational use or for diseases can result in mental illness. Children as well as adults may find it difficult to settle in the new environment such as a new school or a new work place.